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Nearly 7% of the world population is obese1 and about 66% of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese.2 Obesity is associated with a number of adverse medical conditions including increased risk of gallbladder disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease (CHD), osteoarthritis, cancer death and reduced life expectancy.3–8 Obesity is also associated with adverse social and psychological consequences, including bias, discrimination and decreased quality of life.9,10
More effective treatment strategies are urgently needed for obesity management. The total caloric intake or energy density of one’s diet appears to be associated with obesity11–14 and a diet that induces a negative energy balance continues to be an important part of obesity management. Strategies to achieve the difficult task of eating less than desired include reduction of the energy density of foods by increasing food volume by the addition of fluids,15,16 bulk17–19 or their combination;20 or by increasing satiety by various anorectic drugs or macronutrient combinations of high satiety value.
Satiety is positively associated with the protein, fiber and water content of foods and negatively with fat and palatability ratings.21,22 However, within food groups, there may be as much as a twofold difference in satiety values, suggesting that certain foods promote greater satiety independent of macronutrient content or energy density. An egg is an example of such a food that has a 50% greater satiety index compared to white bread or ready-to-eat breakfast cereal.21 Compared to an isocaloric bagel breakfast of equal weight, an egg breakfast had a greater satiating effect, which translated into a lower caloric intake at lunch.23 The resulting decrease in energy consumption lasted for at least 24 h after the egg breakfast.
This study was undertaken to exploit the short-term satiating benefits of an egg breakfast23 for weight loss in a longer-term trial. The objectives were to determine if the incorporation of an egg breakfast in the diet by overweight or obese subjects would (1) induce reduced energy intake and unintentional weight loss, even when not attempting weight reduction; or (2) enhance weight loss when following a reduced energy diet. We compared the effects of an egg vs isocaloric bagel breakfast of equal weight on weight loss, indices of body size and composition, dietary compliance, food cravings and health-specific quality of life.Materials and methods
The study was approved by the institutional review boards at Pennington Biomedical Research Center and at Saint Louis University. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. We certify that all applicable institutional and governmental regulations regarding the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during this research.
Of the 160 participants enrolled, 8 did not complete the trial. The final study sample included 152 participants (131 women and 21 men; mean age 45.0±9.4 years; black participants 47.7% and white participants 52.3%). Demographic characteristics of the participants are provided inTable 1
5 yoga poses to relieve back pain that can be done at home:
Back pain is a common problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, muscle strain, and injury. While medication and physical therapy can help relieve back pain, yoga is also a great way to stretch and strengthen the muscles in the back, reduce stress and tension, and improve overall flexibility and mobility. Here are five yoga poses that can help relieve back pain and can be done at home.
- Child's Pose (Balasana)
Child's pose is a gentle yoga pose that stretches the lower back and hips, promotes relaxation, and can help relieve tension and stress. To perform this pose, start on your hands and knees with your hands shoulder-width apart and your knees hip-width apart. Then, lower your hips back towards your heels and stretch your arms out in front of you. Rest your forehead on the mat and breathe deeply for several breaths.
- Cat-Cow Stretch (Chakravakasana)
The cat-cow stretch is a gentle and effective way to stretch the muscles in the spine and back. To perform this pose, start on your hands and knees with your hands shoulder-width apart and your knees hip-width apart. As you inhale, arch your back and lift your head and tailbone towards the ceiling (cow pose). As you exhale, round your spine and tuck your chin to your chest (cat pose). Repeat this movement several times, flowing smoothly between cow and cat poses.
- Downward-Facing Dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana)
Downward-facing dog is a classic yoga pose that stretches the hamstrings, calves, and back muscles while also strengthening the arms and shoulders. To perform this pose, start on your hands and knees with your hands shoulder-width apart and your knees hip-width apart. Then, lift your hips up and back, straightening your arms and legs and pressing your heels towards the floor. Hold the pose for several breaths, feeling the stretch in your back and legs.
- Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana)
Cobra pose is a backbend that stretches the muscles in the chest, shoulders, and back while also strengthening the arms and spine. To perform this pose, lie on your stomach with your hands under your shoulders and your elbows close to your sides. As you inhale, press into your hands and lift your chest off the ground, keeping your elbows close to your sides. Hold the pose for several breaths, then release back down to the ground.
- Bridge Pose (Setu Bandhasana)
Bridge pose is a gentle backbend that strengthens the muscles in the back, hips, and legs while also stretching the chest and shoulders. To perform this pose, lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the ground. As you inhale, lift your hips up towards the ceiling, pressing into your feet and shoulders. Hold the pose for several breaths, then release back down to the ground.
In conclusion, practicing yoga can be a great way to relieve back pain, improve flexibility and mobility, and promote relaxation and stress relief. These five yoga poses can be done at home and are a great place to start for anyone looking to relieve back pain. Remember to breathe deeply and listen to your body, never pushing yourself beyond your limits. With regular practice, you may find that your back pain improves and that you feel more comfortable and relaxed in your body.
high calcium foods to nourish bones and promote good health:
Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in maintaining strong bones and teeth, muscle function, nerve transmission, and other important bodily functions. However, many people do not consume enough calcium in their diet, which can lead to a variety of health problems, including osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and increases the risk of fractures. Fortunately, there are many high calcium foods that can help you meet your daily calcium needs and support healthy bones and overall health.
Dairy products are the most well-known source of calcium. Milk, cheese, and yogurt are all excellent sources of calcium and other important nutrients like vitamin D, which helps the body absorb and use calcium. However, some people may be lactose intolerant or have a milk allergy, which can make it difficult to consume dairy products. If you are unable to consume dairy, there are other high calcium foods you can incorporate into your diet.
Leafy greens like spinach, kale, and collard greens are another excellent source of calcium. These greens are also high in other important nutrients like vitamin K, which plays a role in bone health by helping the body use calcium. In addition to calcium and vitamin K, leafy greens are also rich in antioxidants, fiber, and other vitamins and minerals that are essential for good health.
Nuts and seeds are another great source of calcium. Almonds are one of the best sources of calcium among nuts, with one ounce providing about 8% of the daily recommended intake. Sesame seeds and chia seeds are also high in calcium and can be easily incorporated into your diet. Additionally, nuts and seeds are a great source of healthy fats, fiber, and protein, making them a great snack option.
Tofu is a plant-based protein source that is also high in calcium. Made from soybeans, tofu is a popular ingredient in many vegetarian and vegan dishes. Half a cup of tofu provides about 20% of the daily recommended intake of calcium. Additionally, tofu is a good source of protein and other important nutrients like iron and magnesium.
Finally, there are many fortified foods that can help you meet your daily calcium needs. Fortified foods are foods that have had extra nutrients added to them, such as calcium, to make them more nutritious. Breakfast cereals, plant-based milks like almond milk and soy milk, and orange juice are all common sources of calcium-fortified foods. However, it's important to read the labels carefully, as not all fortified foods are created equal. Some fortified foods may be high in added sugars or other unhealthy ingredients, so it's important to choose wisely.
In conclusion, incorporating high calcium foods into your diet can help you meet your daily calcium needs and support healthy bones and overall health. Dairy products, leafy greens, nuts and seeds, tofu, and fortified foods are all excellent sources of calcium that can be easily incorporated into your meals and snacks. By eating a varied and balanced diet that includes plenty of high calcium foods, you can support strong bones, healthy muscles, and overall wellbeing.
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